Evidence and the Evolution of a Closed Mind

Scientific evidence is always – always – interpreted. What happens when it’s only interpreted according to previously accepted dictums? A rigamarole of self-supporting science that really isn’t suspended from anything at all.

Remember geo-centrism? It accurately (although complicatedly) described the observed phenomena. Same with helio-centrism, although it accomplished the same functions more elegantly. The point is, identical observations were available to both theories.

When people seized upon evolution, it was rooted not in the scientific rigor of the theory, but the fact that it offered intellectual credibility to the secular mind: finally, a theory that didn’t need God. Ever since then, there has been a self-fulfilling system of
1. predetermined bias against any cosmology compatible with a deity, followed by
2. Only interpreting available evidence in terms of this secular cosmology, which becomes
3. a system where only one theory has “evidence,” due to an unwillingness to examine the evidence in any other way, rooted in #1.

So there are indeed “shreds of evidence” for theories besides evolution: the exact same shreds that exist for evolution. Evidence is observation: when you conflate evidence and the interpretation of evidence, you’ve already gone a good way towards making your science unfalsifiable, which I’ve been told is a bad thing. The evidence is there: all that’s lacking is a willingness to examine the old observations in a new light.

Now, I’m not saying this is unfair. Far from it. Everyone has their biases, and everyone has fundamental axioms which they will inevitably interpret the world by. The sticky part is when scientists claim neutrality as their demesne. No, they are human like the rest of us: and until they realize that their actions, including interpretation of evidence, spring from preconceived ideologies, their science will be fatally close-minded.

The biggest mistake a scientist can make is taking his own worldview for granted – and that includes evolution.

Tolkien’s Trees: Part 2

(This is part 2 of a series, on the subject of the Norse myth of Ygdrasil in Tolkien’s writings. For parts 1 and 3, click here and here.)

When Ragnarok, the last batle of gods and giants, has finished, the tree of Ygdrasil has been withered and burnt by flame, just like in Pippin’s vision of the Tree of Gondor. Both trees burn, and in both cases, it symbolizes a destruction of an order.[1] And yet, after Ragnarok, we hear that not the whole tree has died: there are still worlds left intact and whole, with peace.[2] Odin hears this being sung of a long way off by a distant and beautiful voice, just like Faramir and Eowyn hear the Eagle singing of Sauron’s fall when they are on the battlements after the final confrontation. And the tree remains alive, just as the tree of Gondor does not fail.

One could also argue that The Hobbit owes something to Ygdrasil. The trees burning under the dwarves, the wizard Gandalf (whom some compare with Odin[3]), and the quivering hobbit is a picture of a little Ragnarok. We see Gandalf, in a grim and terrible mood of Norse inevitability, prepare to throw himself down upon his enemies at the roots and destroy himself along with them – but Tolkien turns the tale at the last moment, and rescues them.

Not only does the White Tree of Gondor resemble Ygdrasil, but the Party Tree back in the Shire also resembles Ygdrasil in important respects. The tree which replaces the original is a mallorn tree, which is described as being smooth and pale white with golden leaves – the very name Lothlorien means “The Golden Wood.” The roots of Ygdrasil are sprinkled with holy waters of the fountains, and according to Viktor Rydberg, everything which the water touches is turned a white colour, simultaneously linking the roots of Ygdrasil to the white mallorn trees and the White Tree of Gondor. Also, these white roots are surrounded by golden cisterns, just as the mallorn trees are hung with gold leaves.[4]

Not only that, but Ygdrasil produces the food called the “dew of the morning” a food similar to ambrosia, but also similar to the way manna is described: sweet, falling from the leaves of the tree onto the ground to be gathered daily, and extremely nourishing. “The morning dew from Ygdrasil was, according to the mythology, a sweet and wonderful nourishment, and in the popular traditions of the Teutonic middle age the dew of the morning retained its reputation for having strange nourishing qualities.”[5] When the Company is in Lothlorien, they receive gifts of food from the elves there, and it is called lembas, the wayfarer’s bread. It is sweet, light, and extremely nourishing. And this food, as you may recall, is presented to the company wrapped in the leaves of the mallorn tree, without which it will spoil. So not only is the mallorn tree described similarly to Ygdrasil, but it also bears some of the same connections to food and nourishment.


[1] J.R. Wytenbroek, “Apocalyptic Vision in Lord of The Rings,” Mythlore, 54 (summer 1988), 11.

[2] Donald Alexander Mackenzie, Teutonic Myth and Legend, (William H. Wise & Co.: 1934), 183.

[3] John Gough, “Tolkien’s Creation: Northern or Not,”in Children’s Literature in Education, Vol. 30, No.1, 1999, 2.

[4] Viktor Rydberg, Teutonic Mythology: Gods and Goddesses of the Northland, Norraena Society, ( New York: 1907), 331.

[5] Rydberg, 345.